Science and Technology – A Form Of Knowledge And A Mode Of Inquiry

Science and technology are forms of knowledge utilized for different purposes within society. Science is knowledge that society uses to understand the natural world while technology is knowledge that society employs to survive the natural world. Using these definitions, it is understood that society serves as the backdrop for these forms of knowledge to propagate and that these should be studied in the context of society. The society also determines the form and direction of science and technology through three mains factors – environment (geography, etc.), historical experience and lifestyle. A prominent example of the effect of society in shaping the form of science and technology is the Republic of Korea (South Korea). Its precarious location between its enemy state, North Korea, and former colonial master, Japan, provided the impetus to its consistent effort in creating a robust science and technology capacity. South Korea’s historical experience as being one of the most impoverished states in the world during the 1960s also contributed to its development of electronics, semiconductor devices and robotics in order to bolster its economic resources.

The history of science as knowledge dates back from ancient times when natural philosophers such as Thales of Miletus and Democritus would observe and theorize about the occurrences in the natural world. It was in places where Islam was practiced where science first emerged. Eventually, science gained momentum in Europe when the Protestant Reformation transpired which emphasized the value of individualism in the search for the explanation of various natural phenomena. This age of science would then be replaced with the occurrence of the Scientific Revolution three centuries ago when science developed into what it is known today. According to Michael Mosley’s The Story of Science, The Renaissance which paved the way for an unprecedented influx of scientific discoveries and inventions and the Reformation which opened the minds of Europe to individual search for knowledge are the two main factors which serves as catalysts for the Scientific Revolution. This revolution is one that began in Prague where Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, two brilliant medieval astrologers, began making their astronomical and planetary observations which ultimately led to the debunking of the geocentric view of Earth and shifted to the heliocentric viewpoint of Earth. Isaac Newton and Galileo Galilei led the Scientific Revolution to its height.

In defining the term knowledge, it must be noted that legitimate knowledge is information that can be processed by human senses, externally verifiable by others, and backed up by acceptable evidence. In Habermas’ Typology of Knowledge, knowledge is said to be classified into three, namely: empirical knowledge, historical knowledge and critical knowledge. Empirical knowledge is concerned with understanding the material world, historical knowledge is concerned with understanding the meaning of historical texts, and critical knowledge is concerned with uncovering sources of domination. Scientific knowledge can be classified under empirical knowledge. Therefore, it can be surmised that scientific knowledge is not the sole form of legitimate knowledge and that there are other forms of knowledge. One of these forms of knowledge is literature. In Lewis’ The Poet’s Way of Knowledge, poetry was cited as one of the forms of literature and that it operates in a field which is closed to science. Language scientifically used cannot describe a landscape or face. It is said that literature improves us by showing us images of perfection which is the end of all earthly learning being virtuous action. Therefore, literature is said to complement science because what science cannot do literature can and vice versa. Literature as knowledge is empirical, hermeneutic and critical knowledge all at the same time.

After defining knowledge, the question of how new knowledge is created arises. This question is answered by the scientific method in which science acts as a mode of inquiry. The basic technique of the scientific method is observation which uses the five human senses to gather qualitative data about the natural world. The scientific method consists of the identification and definition of the problem and formulating and testing a hypothesis. This method is geared towards the discovery of facts and principles. As such knowledge is produced by the scientific method through empirical verification – using empirical data and observations to confirm the truth or rational justification of a hypothesis. Although the scientific method offers a reliable mode of inquiry to produce new knowledge, it also has its share of drawbacks. Some of these disadvantages include its inability to capture the phenomenon in its natural setting, the possibility of flawed or manipulated design, the reality that not everything can be subjected to experimentation, and the limitations presented by scientific equipment and resources.

Science and technology allow humans to understand and survive the natural world. The scientific method is used to produce new scientific knowledge. Modern civilization is founded on scientific and technological achievements of the past which makes science and technology indispensable in today’s time. However, scientific knowledge which is a type of empirical knowledge is not the only form of knowledge in the world because it has certain limitations. One of the other forms of knowledge is literature – empirical, hermeneutic and critical at the same time. Both science and literature complement each other. Lastly, science is a form of knowledge and is also a mode of inquiry.

Science and Technology Translations

With the globalization of companies more popular today than ever before, translation services are critical to the company’s success. Science & technology firms are also increasing their need for these types of services. In fact, these are a valuable resource regardless of the industry you’re in.

However, science translations offer a unique challenge, as there are specific terms, measurements, and formulas that can be difficult to translate to certain languages. By hiring a translation service company that specializes in science and technology translations, you can be assured that your materials are getting translated effectively in the languages you require.

There are numerous materials that a translation company can help with, including sales materials, data sheets and reports, business cards, and product guides, just to name a few. Whatever literature your company produces, it can be translated into any number of other languages when you hire a professional team of experts.

Upon selecting a science translations company to work with, they will work closely with you to determine your needs and requirements. They will want to know what types of materials you would like translated, and of course, which language or languages you require. The company will then assign the work to be converted to their employee that is skilled in that particular language. If you have more than one language requirement, they may need to assign it to more than one person. For example, they might have a skilled translator in French, and another skilled translator in Italian. They may have one expert in each language.

When you are trying to attract business in other countries, it makes sense to get your marketing materials translated. This shows a certain respect for their culture and their language. Some people may assume that they have at least one employee who speaks English; but that is a dangerous assumption. First, that person may not be able to read specific science & technology terms; and second, if you want their business, you must make an effort to go the extra mile. It could make the difference between your company getting the contract, or your competition.

The cost of these services is well worth the extra profits you will make by having global companies do business with you. When you conduct business with grace and consideration, you’ll always come out on top. Your reputation will grow and soon, you’ll be needing science translations for many other languages as well.

Prebiotics And Probiotics Science and Technology – How Ironic Is This?

Our ancestors either grew their own food, killed it, or bought it from a neighboring farm. Those days are long gone. Now we simply buy anything at anytime of the year from the local supermarket, where everything is packaged and guaranteed to last a long time. Unfortunately, their negative effects on our health are lasting a long time too.

There’s an obvious link and parallel to North America’s increasing illness and disease with the ever increasing poor diets resulting from too much processed food. Earlier in the 1900’s, before the science and technology of preserving and processing our food, which really got into full swing after the second world war, the statistics for disease and obesity were not like they are today. In fact, you’d have to search hard to see a really obese person in the United States. Today 80% of the population is overweight!

The old slogan “eat less and exercise more” has finally fallen upon deaf ears, and it’s about time because it is irrelevant now. It’s not the amount of food we are eating, it’s the type of food we eat that makes Americans the fattest people on earth.

Europeans eat as much if not more, but they don’t have an obesity epidemic. Why is that? There are food additives that have been banned in many countries but continue to be used in the United States.

Hydrogenated oils used to cook commercially packaged foods have been banned in many countries because scientists have proven that the dangerous trans fats we get from these oils cause hardening of the arteries, clog blood veins, cause liver problems and have increased heart attacks and strokes.

You’d think the government would put a stop to these dangerous food additives and chemicals that are killing off it’s people. No. The pharmaceutical drug companies are making way too much money to make any changes now. If we all got healthy, who would they sell their drugs to? There’s not enough money in selling cures, only in treating symptoms.

Now that science has discovered some really amazing health benefits in consuming probiotics and prebiotics, the food companies are adding them to their unhealthy, high processed foods. The same foods that have been decreasing our collective health for decades.

High crazy is it to add prebiotic fiber supplements to foods that have had all their natural fibers processed right out of them? Well, it’s not crazy for the food companies if we start buying it up, it’s crazy for us to do it because we can simply get those nutrients from real natural foods which have not been processed.

Prebiotics and probiotics have finally meet science and technology. They have been around since we started eating and fermenting milk because there wasn’t any refrigeration yet. Processed foods are the result of technology which started out as a good idea for availability and convenience, but now we know this is killing many of us through disease that is directly related to eating these foods for long periods of time.

Want to have good digestive health? Eliminate processed foods from your diet and start adding real food that contain plenty of minerals, vitamins, digestive enzymes and dietary fibers. These are the substances that will increase metabolism, help lose unhealthy weight, unclog livers and colons and get your digestive system up and running good again.